Dr. John Choi

Dr. John Choi is a Professor of Handong Global University in Pohang, South Korea.

I would like to make a historical research on how the reformation movement in Emden, Germany has taken place in the 16th century and transformed the whole city. At that time Emden was a shelter to the protestant refugees from Europe who were persecuted by the Catholics. Johannes a Lasco, Gellius Faber, Albert Hardenberg and Menso Alting have done so many remarkable ministries in Emden. Therefore, Emden has become one of the most important reformation cities in Europe, together with Wittenberg and Geneva and so has been called as the ‘Geneva of the north’ and nominated as the first reformation city in Europe in 2017. Through the synod in 1571, the reformed church has been firmly established in Emden as well as in Europe. The population has increased from 3,000 to 20,000 due to the protestant refugees so it has become one of the biggest cities in Germany and the most important port of Europe. Most protestant refugees who came to Emden were high skilled workers such as textile traders, grain traders and skilled printing workers. They made an enormous contribution for the economic and cultural prosperity of Emden. At the same time, various ministries were done to help the poor. In this research, therefore, an investigation is made to see how this reformation has happened and changed Emden. In conclusion, the implications of this reformation to Korean context are drawn.